Kamis, 12 Juni 2014

Pedagogi & Andragogi

Pedagodi
Andragogi
Metode pelatihan pasif, seperti metode kuliah atau ceramah
Menggunakan metode pelatihan aktif
Belajar berpusat pada isi atau pengetahuan teoritis
Belajar berpusat pada masalah kehidupan nyata
Pembelajar disebut ‘siswa’ atau ‘anak didik’
Pembelajar disebut ‘peserta didik’/ warga belajar
Gaya belajar dependen
Gaya belajar independen
Peserta berkontribusi sedikit berpengalaman
Keterlibatan atau konstribusi peserta didik, memiliki pengalaman untuk berkonstribusi
Diasumsikan bahwa siswa tidak berpengalaman dan atau kurang informasi
Diasumsikan bahwa peserta didik memiliki pengetahuan untuk berkonstribusi
Guru mengontrol waktu & kecepatan
Pembelajaran mempengaruhi waktu dan kecepatan
Guru sebagai sumber utama yang memberikan ide-ide & contoh
Peserta dianggap sebagai sumber daya utama untuk ide-ide
Tujuan ditentukan sebelumnya
Tujuan fleksibel





Asumsi Pedagogi
Asumsi Andragogi
Konsep diri
Ketergantungan
Peningkatan arah diri atau kemandirian
Pengalaman
Berharga kecil
Pelajar merupakan sumberdaya yang hanya untuk belajar
Orientasi untuk belajar
Berpusat pada substansi mata pelajaran
Berpusat pada masalah
Evaluasi
Oleh guru
Reksa diagnosis kebutuhan & reksa program pengukuran
Desain
Logika materi pelajaran, unik konten
Diurutkan dalam hal kesiapan untuk urut masalah
Kegiatan
Teknik pelayanan
Reksa pengalaman (penyelidikan)
Iklim belajar
Berorientasi otoritas, resmi, dan kompetitif
Mutualitas/pemberian pertolongan, rasa hormat, kolaborasi, & informal
Rumusan tujuan
Oleh guru
Reksa negosiasi
Kesiapan
Tugas perkembangan, pesan sosial
Tugas perkembangan, pesan sosial
Perspektif waktu
Aplikasi ditunda
Kecepatan aplikasi
Perencanaan
Oleh guru
Reksa (mutual) diagnosis diri






































Pedagogi:  ilmu atau seni dan kebudayaan bagi pembelajaran anak-anak.

Menurut Knowles, Paid child         Agogus leader of         Aner man/adult      


10 Karakter guru yang baik:
1. Confidence. Belief in ourselves despite setbacks. Teachers encounter situations all the time that could be considered setbacks. Kids can be cruel, to each other and to teachers. They can have attitudes, especially teenagers. I’ve had teachers to were obviously nervous when they taught. Others were shy and only half committed to their subject. But the best teachers laughed off their mistakes: chalk breaking, books dropped, TVs not working. Where some teachers were flustered, the good teachers shrugged and went on about the lesson, sometimes even joking about the mess up. These teachers knew they were human and knew mistakes happen. They didn’t take things personally and let problems get them upset.
2. Patience. Some of my best teachers could have helped students through a mental breakdown. Not that they had to, but that they were so patient, they could have gone the distance. Many a time I, or classmate, would just not be “getting” a particular concept. My best teachers were those who were willing to keep explaining, knowing that eventually it would make sense. They were willing to wait until a distraction calmed students down, or abandon a lesson entirely if it was clear material needed to be revisited. The best teachers just stuck with it, willing to do what it took, no matter how long it took.
3. True compassion for their students. I’m sure we’ve all encountered a bad teacher who didn’t care what our excuse was. Certainly, some excuses weren’t valid, but many were. The best teachers cared about their students as individuals and wanted to help them. They had a sixth sense when a student needed extra attention and gave it gladly. They didn’t expect students to leave thoughts of the outside world at the door to the classroom. They took the time to discuss subjects outside their teaching, knowing that sometimes lessons can still be taught without following the textbook. Good teachers were willing to speak up for us to other teachers, if need be. They cared about us beyond the walls of their classroom.
4. Understanding. Good teachers had understanding – not only the sixth sense mentioned above, but true understanding of how to teach. They didn’t have a rigid technique that they insisted on using even if it didn’t help us learn. They were flexible in their teaching style, adapting daily if need be. They understood the little things that affected our ability to learn; the weather, the temperature in the classroom, the time of day. They had an understanding of human nature and the maturity (or lack thereof) of teenagers. Good teachers knew that we hated to be called “young” and therefore pre-judged. They treated us as real people, not just “students.”
5. The ability to look at life in a different way and to explain a topic in a different way. There are many different learning styles. Not everyone gets a subject as taught by every teacher. I’ve taken subjects (chemistry for instance) many times, at many different levels, by many different teachers. I took College Organic Chemistry three times from three different teachers. I can tell you from experience that it was more the skill of the third teacher than the third time taking the class that allowed me to pass. Bad teachers only look a subject matter one way. They teach based on how they learn. This works for some people, but fails for others. The good teachers are ones that are able to teach to different learning styles. If students don’t understand a subject, they teach it a different way. Instead of looking at abstract formulas, they explain with images what the formulas represent. This requires a through understand of their subject, as well as the ability to consider that subject in different ways, which not all teachers are able to do. 
6. Dedication to excellence. Good teachers want the best from their students and themselves. They don’t settle for poor grades, knowing it reflects upon their ability to teach just as much upon a student’s ability to excel. The best teachers encourage the sharing of ideas and offer incentives (like not having to do homework for a day) to get students to think outside the box. They don’t tolerate students’ badmouthing other teachers, doing their best to point out that other teachers are human too. They encourage students to be good people, not just good memorizers of text. They want students to learn and be able to apply what they learned, not just be able to pass tests.
7. Unwavering support. The best teachers know that everyone is able to do well if they have the right teacher. They don’t accept that a student is a lost cause. They encourage if you are frustrated and provide true belief that you can get the material. They stand up for individuals against other students, not allowing for in class taunting. Sometimes, they even extend this outside the classroom, although taunts in the hallways are very hard for teachers to combat. The best teachers are there if you need extra help and even encourage it.
8. Willingness to help student achieve. The best teachers are those that don’t stop teaching when the bell rings. They hold extra sessions for SAT prep, they reach out to students after class. They know that some need extra attention or assistance, and they don’t act like it’s not their job. They take that job seriously and know they aren’t just employed to get students to be able to do higher math, but do well in life. They realize that achievement isn’t just a good grade on a test, but a feeling of accomplishment with mastering a subject; they are willing to work with a student for that feeling.
A teacher observes her students, waiting to help them if needed.

Creative Commons License photo credit: peruisay
9. Pride in student’s accomplishments. The best teachers let you know they are glad you got a good grade or made the honor’s society. They smile and tell you that you did a good job. They tell other teachers about how you did as well. Outside you may feel embarrassed, but inside you are glowing. The best teachers don’t single out the best students either. They celebrate the accomplishments of everyone, knowing that everyone is capable to doing well. They are upbeat and positive, focusing on how a student did well, not how well they taught. They may know that it was the strength of their teaching that helped a student to achieve, but they act as if the student is completely responsible.
10. Passion for life. The best teachers aren’t just interested in their subject, they are passionate about it. They are also passionate about many other things. They praise good weather and smile when they take a few minutes to discuss last night’s episode of a popular TV show. They have an energy that almost makes them glow and that you want to emulate as much as possible. They approach tasks with a sense of challenge rather than routine. They take the universe’s curve balls and turn them into fun (if possible). They are human, certainly, but they make you feel that there is always a reason to keep going. Things will get better no matter how much they appear to suck at that moment.



               



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Sudah empat belas tahun saya belajar ditambah tiga tahun prasekolah. Jadi sudah tujuh belas tahun saya menikmati bangku sekolah, belajar, berinteraksi dengan teman sebaya, dan juga diajar oleh banyak guru dengan berbagai macam gaya mengajar. Ada guru yang mengajar dengan sangat sabar, ada juga yang selalu memberi hukuman kepada siswa atau peserta didik. Ada guru yang memberikan dukungan intrapersonal pada saya dan teman-teman. Misalnya pada saat nilai ulangan harian saya turun, beliau bertanya dimana kesulitannya, materi mana yang tidak dimengerti.
Perbedaan yang sangat kontras pada setiap tahap pendidikan (Playgroup, TK, SD, SMP, SMK, dan kuliah). Dari masa playgroup sampai SMP, guru berperan aktif dalam memberikan pengajaran, model belajar, serta berkoordinasi dengan orangtua untuk mengawasi perkembangan anak dan memastikan bahwa anak belajar dengan baik disekolah maupun di rumah. Setelah memasuki tingkat SMK, saya merasa bahwa guru tidak lagi mendidik peserta didik seperti sebelumnya. Guru produktif hanya memberikan instruksi apa saja yang harus dipersiapkan, apa saja yang harus dilakukan, seperti apa standar-standar melakukan dengan benar. Sementara pada guru-guru normatif, beberapa tetap memberikan metode pedagogi pada siswa, sebagian lagi sudah memberikan metode andragogi. Siswa berhak memilih metode belajar seperti apa yang akan kita jalankan. Membuat perjanjian jika saya mengerjakan sekian, maka saya akan mendapatkan nilai sekian. Jika saya tidak mengumpulkan tugas, maka saya bertanggungjawab atas nilai yang akan saya peroleh.
Pada awal masuk kuliah di Fakultas Psikologi, saya merasa ini sangat berbeda dengan SMA atau SMK. Keadaan dimana mau tidak mau kami harus aktif mencari sumber atau materi perkuliahan sendiri. Peserta didik harus membaca resensi terlebih dahulu sebelum perkuliahan dimulai. Pada jam kuliah juga peserta didik harus aktif mengungkapkan ide-ide atau pendapat serta bertanya dan berdiskusi di kelas tetang pengalaman kita sendiri, hal – hal atau fenomena atau masalah-masalah yang kita temui di kehidupan kita sehari-hari.






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